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Germs &Public Health

Be Prepared to Avoid Germs in Greece

Stay informed

 A common reason for not seeking pre-travel health advice is  that the traveler felt that he or she already possessed the relevant information

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To reduce travel-related risks, travellers should seek health-related pretravel consultation. Survey studies performed at departure terminals in Europe, United States and Australia investigating travellers to developing countries have found that between 35% and 66% of travellers sought pretravel health information  
Pre-travel health information was mainly acquired from primary healthcare providers; between 4% and 26% had visited a designated travel medicine clinic. Women were more likely than men to seek pre-travel health information  find source 



In Europe alone, infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are estimated to kill 25,000 people every year. 

Better Avoid Greek Public Hospitals

In at least 3 countries (Italy, Greece and Malta) the resistance to last-line antibiotics has become an “endemic problem”, meaning their hospitals are unable to treat patients infected with resistant bacteria.
Global superbug crisis threatens especially Greece due to migration crisis 

It is feared the crisis could further penetrate Europe as displaced migrants enter from a war-torn Middle East, where countries such as Syria have increasing levels of antibiotic resistance.Dr Brown said undelying that  

“It is almost too late” He said: “In 2016, a number of factors are coming together - including the effects of the migration crisis

Australian hospitals warned over new antibiotic-resistant superbug found in Italy and Greece 

Victorian hospitals are told to strictly enforce infection control measures after being warned about a new antibiotic-resistant superbug called KPC which is believed to be responsible for eighteen deaths since 2012.

“We’re advising now that our system is on heightened alert.”   Dr Romanes , Victorian state chief officer, said hospitals have been urged to introduce new interim screening requirements to pick up the bacteria, which is typically found in Greece and Italy.


Southern Europe, places such as Italy and Greece, and the Middle East are more under threat because of weaker health systems and weaker monitoring systems. India, especially, could be in real trouble.

The migration crisis will probably not be helping anything as a lot of people coming over from Syria could be bringing bugs

Dr David Brown, director at Antibiotic Research UK , December 2015

 

Canada's ‘detect and protect’ strategy to stop drug resistant  infections from being imported from Greece, Italy but also from the US 

Bruce Gamage, manager of B.C.’s Provincial Infection Control Network, said special protocols have been in place for ill patients returning from Greece, Israel, and the Indian subcontinent.

“We are now asking people whether they’ve been in a hospital in the U.S.,” Gamage told The Province. “If so, there are protocols in place.”

Hospitals use extreme caution if a patient became ill and has been treated in a hospital or health-care facility in one of the regions of concern.

“They stay in their own room, and everyone who goes in the room wears gowns and gloves.” said Gamage.”We stress handwashing, to ensure it doesn’t get spread around the hospital.”

Dr. Linda Hoang, a medical microbiologist with the B.C. Centre for Disease Control, said 

some of the CRE carriers contracted the bacteria due to a recent phenomenon known as “medical tourism” – patients needing expensive procedures sometimes opt for cheaper care in the third world, but may contract illnesses even as they’re saving money.

“It can be very serious,” said Hoang, who said travellers treated in hospitals abroad also can bring CRE back to B.C. MARCH 2013


In Greece today 

Basic hygiene at risk in debt-stricken Greek Public hospitals 

Greek hospitals are in such dire straits that staff are failing to keep up basic disease controls such as using gloves and gowns, threatening a rise in multidrug-resistant infections, according to Europe's top health official


Greece already has one of the worst problems in Europe with hospital-acquired infections, and disease experts fear this is being made worse by an economic crisis that has cut health care staffing levels and hurt standards of care, European Center for Disease Control has warned since more than 4 years earlier, but nobody is declaring an Alert   

With fewer doctors and nurses to look after more patients, and hospitals running low on cash for supplies, risks are being taken even with basic hygiene, said Marc Sprenger, director of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). after a two-day trip to Athens, where he visited hospitals and other healthcare facilities.


 I'm now really convinced we have reached one minute to midnight in this battle," "I have seen places...where the financial situation did not allow even for basic requirements like gloves, gowns and alcohol wipes," Sprenger said 


"We already knew Greece is in a very bad situation regarding antibiotic resistant infections, he said , underlying that the situation means patients with highly infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) may not get the treatment they need, raising the risk that dangerous drug-resistant forms will tighten their grip on Europe.   Reuters,  Dec 4, 2012 5:14pm EST


Recent findings more than worrying  

MDR bugs not only in hospitals

FEMS Microbiology Ecology Advance Access published February 24, 2016

  As a conclusion, it seems that Greek water bodies could serve as a potential reservoir of resistant P. aeruginosa isolates posing threats to human and animal health

Characterization of Salmonella isolates from municipal sewage, patients, foods, and animals in Greece using antimicrobial susceptibility testing 

Research (Published online: 24-03-2016)


Conclusion:
This study indicates that municipal wastewater would be of interest to further monitor the community’s prevalence of subclinical or non-reported S. Enterica infections

Containment of carbapenem resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii in Greek hospital with a concomitant increase in colistin, gentamicin and tigecycline resistance.July 2015

In 2010 the Hellenic center for disease control and prevention launched the "Prokroustes" nationwide action plan to tackle . Carbapenem resistance rates have been contained for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii but not for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. More worryingly, in accordance with their overuse against carbapenem-resistant bacteria, resistance rates to colistin and tigecycline have risen significantly. source PUBMED

 


Medical Tourism, Private Health
Sector, on best quality 

High standards of medical care

Here are the reasons why Greece has attained such a high standard of medical care:

  • Greeks always considered health an issue of particular importance. It was historically a top priority and they spent a good deal of money to preserve it.
  • A large percentage of Greek doctors have worked abroad, in a variety of countries, and have acquired international experience, which they have brought back to their own country.
  • In Greece, the medical sector is highly competitive. As a result, more and more is being invested in medical knowledge, machines, and hospital buildings and infrastructure.Under the financial crisis of the country the private sector maintained its high standards and quality on medical, scientifical, research and accommodation hospital services  
  • The standard of private Greek hospitals is high, firstly because of the high level of competitiveness, and secondly because Greece is a tourist destination and international insurance companies expect Greek hospitals to comply with the international standards in order to be able to hospitalise their clients.

For all the above reasons, Greece now finds itself among the top medical tourism destinations in the world. It is no surprise that countless people from all over come to Greece to receive medical treatment. In addition, Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and the Middle East, which allows for easy access. This, in combination with the relatively low cost of medical services in Greece, has led an ever-increasing number of non-Greeks to seek hospitalization here. 


It is no surprise that there are private hospitals whose patients are mostly non-Greeks and that the rate of repeat patients, in other words, the number of non-Greeks who received medical treatment in Greece on multiple occasions, is extremely high.source 

Refugees in Greece and Public Health

 Five mayors of Athens' coastal suburbs warned of the "enormous" health risks posed by a nearby camp housing over 4,000 migrants and refugees.

"The conditions are out of control and present enormous risks to the public health," the mayors complained in a letter to Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, in reference to the camp at Hellinikon, the site of Athens' old airport.

A total of 4,153 people, including many families, have been held there for the last month in miserable conditions.

"The number of people is much higher than the capacity of the place and there are serious hygiene problems," local mayor Dionyssis Hatzidakis told AFP.

He and his four fellow mayors from the area cited a document from Greece's disease prevention centre KEELPNO warning of the "the danger of disease contagion due to unacceptable housing conditions" at the site which they say has no more than 40 chemical toilets.by AFP, 

Find more on Refugees in Greece and Public Health on our sosgreece social 

Protect yourself 

In Honey, yes, Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria isolated


 Published: February 15, 2016
In order to investigate the antibiotic resistance extent, samples from different untreated and unpasteurized honey samples from different botanical sources purchased in bulk from village open markets in Greece were studied. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from honeys is on the rise. A multiresistance antibiotic profile was effective for most bacterial strains, and pronounced resistance profiles were observed for the commonly used antibiotics. All strains demonstrate resistance to Vancomycin, Ampicillin, Oxacillin and Ceftiofur. High prevalence of S. Aureus, sub. aureus and B. subtilis resistant strains was observed. Metronidazole, Chloramphenicol and Tylosin conserved an almost absent resistance. 
Systematically monitoring and surveillance of the microbiological quality of selected ecosystems by implementation of a public education campaign must be done, in order to preserve food quality, optimizing sewage treatment and safeguard the public health.

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